As one of the oldest centers of civilization, Kermanshah has gained a great importance in the history of Archaeology. One can visit the famous rock Carvings of Bisetun , and Taq– e- Bustan, near this city. Those at Bisetuncelebrate Darius’s triumph over the enemies, and those at Taq– e –Bustan mark the revival of rock – sculpture in Sassanian time.
The city of historical tour of Iran, or we can call a part of Iran history. Kermanshah is located in the center of the province and has a temperate climate. Kermanshah is one of the ancient cities of Iran and it is said that,Tahmores Divband, a mythical ruler of the Pishdadian had constructed it. Some attribute its constructions to Bahram Sassanid. During the reign of Qobad I and Anushirvan Sassanid, Kermanshah was at the peak of its glory. But in the Arab attack suffered great damage. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Esfahan, Kermanshah was destroyed due to the Ottoman invasion. But from the beginning of the 11th century AH.
it began to flourish. In order to prevent a probable aggression of the Zangeneh tribe and due to its proximity with Ottoman Empire, the Safavid ruler paid great attention to this city. But in the Zandieh period upheavals increased, whereas during the Qajar era, Ottoman attacks reduced. Mohammad Ali Mirza in 1221 AH. was seated in kermanshah in order to prevent Ottoman aggression, and Khuzestan also came under his realm. An epigraph of Mohammad Ali Mirza in Taq-e-Bostan has been remained as a relic. In 1267 AH. Imam Qoli Mirza was appointed by Naseredin Shah to protect the Kermanshah frontier. The former during his rule of 25 years constructed some buildings which have remained to be seen. In the Constitutional Movement this city played an important role and in World War I and II and was taken possession by foreign powers and after the war ended, the city was evacuated. As a result of the imposed Iraq war, this city sustained great losses and after the war vast efforts were taken to rehabilitate it. Kermanshah is the capital of the Kermanshah province and is located at a distance of 526 km. from Tehran.
- Some attraction :
o Anahita temple
o The Kangavararchaeological complex
o Bistoon Inscription, Bistoon
The primary scientific studies regarding the engravements and inscriptions of Bistoon were made in 1835, by Henry Rawlinson, a young British officer. After which this research was carried on by several scientists who added their discoveries to this historical treasure. The text of this inscription was engraved in the breast of the mountain in 522 BC. by a decree from Dariush. The same relates to the war which lasted for two and a half years, between him and his opponents in order to gain power.Encircling the Bistoon impression is an epigraph in three languages, named as, the ancient Parsi, Elamite and a Babylonian dialect. The Elamite text is to the right of the impression, the second to the left, running parallel to the Parsi text. Whereas, the Babylonian text stands above that of the second Elamite inscription. Additional and complete translations can be observed in the surroundings and to the right.The ancient Parsi text is in 414 lines and engraved in a beautiful uniform script on a polished surface. In all the epigraphs of Dariush the Achaemenian begins with the phrase “King Dariush proclaims” and this is repeated throughout his decrees, emphasizing the grandeur and greatness of the power of this monarch. This sovereign owned his victory to Ahura Mazda and thus offered a religious effect to the epigraph to a great extent. This view can be noted and brought to light specially in the fourth column of the inscription.
Taq-e-Bostan Engraving, Kermanshah
The “Taq-e-Bostan” (Bostan Arch) or “Taq-e-Vostan” (Vostan Arch) is situated to the right of the city entrance of Kermanshah, and is to the north east of this city. This aggregate which comprises of engravings and epigraphs is related to the Sassanide era. The same is located in the mountain, and together with the natural surroundings, a gorgeous landscape comes into view. On entering this area, the first epigraph is related to Ardeshir II. Ardeshirstands between Ahoura Mazda and Mitra. His face turned towards Ahoura Mazda, and his left hand receiving a wreath of friendship from Ahoura Mazda. Under their feet lies the enemy or “Ahriman“.After this epigraph there is a smaller arch, which depicts the figures of Shapour II and his son Shapour III, and above each of these impression the personalities of epigraph have been introduced in Pahlavi Sassanide script. In the third section of this aggregate there are beautiful epigraphs throughout, revealing winged angels, the tree of life, boar hunting in the groves, duck hunting etc.… together with a group of musicians bringing about a festive atmosphere. Below the epigraph is an armed rider on a horse. Some believe this to be “Pirouz Sassanid”, whilst others take this personality to be “Khosrow Parviz“.