As the first holy city, Mashhad is of extreme significance to the Shiite world. This , of course, is due to the glory of Imam Reza’s shrine which is highly remarkable for its religious, architectural and historical notions, so that approximately 2 million pilgrims from all corners of the Shiite world annually come to visit this very sacred place.
When you have trip to Iran and looking for Iran culture tour this area can be good option. The city of Mashad is situated 909 km. from Tehran in a plain between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar Masjed . Mashadenjoys a temperate, mountainous climate. In the year 202 AH, after the martyrdom of Imam Reza (AS) in a place around Toos called Sanabad which came to be known as Mashad-e-Reza (Place of Martyrdom) the main nucleus of todays or the present Mashad came into existence. Sultan Mahmood Qaznavi built a mausoleum on the shrine. Due to the destruction of the city of Toos in the 7th century AH, people flocked to the city of Mashad. At first, the area of Toos was inhabited by non-Aryans and some parts of it was conquered by the Arabs during the reign of the Caliph Osman. It was annexed to the Islamic territory in the time of Caliph Omar. The city of Toos was one of the first to be plundered and destroyed like the other cities of Khorassan by the Mongols. The city of Toos due to its delicate and sensitive position was subject to upheavals during the Teymourian and Ilkhanan period. Being passed through, hand to hand between different governments, people were massacred. Ultimately in the year 807 AH, Shahrokh, the son of Amir Teymour ascended the throne and since then Toos has developed and thrived, and from the second half of the 9th century AH, it came to stand as a suburb of Mashad. Ruins of the old city of Toos have come to remain. But the present day Toos has guarded its importance due to the fact that the tomb of the great Iranian poet Ferdowsi is located there. However, today Mashad has a unbreakable link with the history of ancient Toos and annually hosts thousands of pilgrims and visitors and is one of the focal points of pilgrims for the Shiite.
Some attraction :
o Kohsangi ( stone mountain )
o Botanical garden
o Neishaboor & Tous
Astan-e-Qods Razavi Aggregate, Mashad
This forms the axis of the holy city of Mashad and is one of the most important and greatest ‘aggregates’ in the world of Islam. Its importance is due to the presence of the shrine of His Holiness Imam Reza (AS), 148-203 AH, which contains valuable historical and artistic monuments from various centuries.
History of Construction :
In the year 203 AH, or as it is said, in the year 202 AH, after the martyrdom of His Holiness Imam Reza (AS), the sacred body was laid to rest on the tomb of Haroon-ol Rashid. It is said that Moqadasi was the first person to name the place Mashad (meaning the place of martyrdom). Ibn-e-Hogol has also called it ‘Mashad–ol-Reza’. In the years 366-387 AH the biased Sabkat Keen one of the rulers of the Qaznavi era, brought down the Holy Shrine to ruins and forbade pilgrimage to the sacred place. Thence, Abaidodowleh Fa’eq endeavored to complete the task of rebuilding the mausoleum and has made great efforts in making the city of Mashad flourish.Thereafter Sultan Mohammad Qaznavi built a brick wall on the former mud caked wall and erected a minaret as well.
According to the inscription in the museum of the shrine it seems that the building was repaired again in 516 AH. In the year 548 AH, the mausoleum was heavily damaged due to the attack of the Qazhs. During the reign of Sultan Sanjar Saljuqi 552-511 AH, the Shrine was once more repaired, and a dome built for the same. The daughter of Sultan Sanjar, (whose name and date of contribution is on record on the inscriptions) was responsible for paving the area surrounding the Shrine in geometrical and star (hexa and octagonal) shaped tiles which added to their beauty.
The reign of Kharazmshahian has also brought about various repairs and artistic measures in the mausoleum. In the year 612 AH, a beautiful embossed inscription on a caked tablet, fixed to the wall on both sides of the entrance to the Shrine, which is in the Tholth script indicates the names of ancestors of His Holiness Imam Reza (AS), originating from His Holiness Hazrat-e-Ali (PBUH).
After the attack of ‘Towli’ the son of Changis, in the year 618 AH, the mausoleum of Razavi was shattered once again, and later on Qazan Khan and Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh Oljaito made efforts for repairs and artistic works of the Garden or (Baq) Razavi.
- The tomb of the great poet Abolqassem Ferdowsi, can be accounted for a place of ‘worship’ so to be called by the lovers of Farsi Literature. This renowned historical site has brought fame for the city of Toos. The construction of this tomb began in the year 1928 and work came to an end in 1934. In the year 1964 a few changes were made in the structure. The internal walls of the tomb are adorned with sculptures depicting scenes from the ‘Shahnameh’. Each side wall of the building is approximately 30 m. x 30 m. and each of the four sides have stairways lead up to it. The lenght of each side of the main buildings foundation is about 16 m., worked with marble it is adorned by verses from the Shahnameh in the Nasta’liq script. Above the southern stone, a symbol of the Ahuramazda embossment, a replica from Achaemenian buildings is in sight. At the vicinity of the tomb of this great Iranian poet, is the resting place of a contemporary poet Mehdi Akhvan Saless.