The township of Ahvaz is situated in the central portion of the province and has a warm and humid climate. Ahvaz is the center and largest city of the province and is located 874 km. from Tehran. In ancient times it was called “HormozdArdeshir” and then “Soq-ol-Ahvaz”.
Later on it was known as “Naseri”. Some historians have mentioned it as “Algeenis”. There is a strong possibility that the city of Ahvaz is located on the site of the old city of “Taryana”. Ardeshir Sassanide I rebuilt Taryana and named it “Hormozd Ardeshir”. During his reign and that of his successors, the city prospered, and instead of Susa became the capital of “Suziana” (Khuzestan). At the time that the Arabs gained control of Suziana, Hormozd Ardeshir was re-named toSoq-ol-Ahvaz , meaning the market of Khuzis or Hoories.
During the period of Omavi and Abbasides Caliphs, Ahvaz city flourished and became the center for the cultivation of sugar-cane. But at the end of the 3rd century AH due to upheavvals of Saheb-ol-Zanj it witnessed a decline. Later on efforts were put for recapturing its fame, but in the mid 9th century AH, the destruction of its large dam further more intensified the decline of the city from the former position that it was used to enjoy.
The construction of the Suez Canal, improved trade and shipping on Karoon River, and reformation of Bandar-e-Naseri as a port during the Qajar era, once again caused flourishing of Ahvaz, and its name was changed to Naseriyeh. During Pahlavi period, the city was re-gained its old name,i.e.,’Ahvaz’. At present it plays an important role regarding the cultural, economical and industrial fields in Iran as well as being one of the highly populated areas of the province.
The township of Shoosh is located to the northwest of the province, and has common borders with the Ilam province. Its center is the city of Shoosh which is at a distance of 1,010 km. from Tehran. It experiences a hot climate. Susa is considered to be one of the oldest centers of civilization throughout the globe. In archeological excavations, relics related to the pre-historic era have been discovered here. The Elamites were the first clans who were responsible for its flourishment. During this reign Susa was proclaimed as a capital. Even after the Achaemenians gained control over Susa, the latter sustained its splendor and was selected as the winter capital by Dariush the Achaemenide. Till the beginning of the control by the moslems, Shoosh continued to thrive.
In the year 1898 AD, the famous castle of Shoosh was constructed by “Morgan” on the northern part of the Acropol hill. The ancient name of Shoosh was ‘Soos’ or ‘Dasht-e-Soosiana’, and later on was changed to Shoosh.